2013年8月16日 星期五

世界/美國設計專利分類

設計專利保護標的不脫於 物體之全部或"部分"的形狀, 花紋, 色彩, 或其組合,另可包括電腦圖像或圖形使用者介面(中華民國專利)。

美國的設計專利就分兩種:an ornamental design, an article of manufacture。
(updated on Jan.28,2015,回應網友"HOMER CONCEPT 人家概念",事實上就一種"ornamental design for an article of manufacture",這裡有筆誤,不過就中文翻譯來看,確實設計專利有分為:表面紋路(裝飾,如地毯)、物品外觀兩種設計)

由於設計專利的專利範圍就是圖式,美國設計專利連圖說都可以不用,因此設計專利分類成為"檢索"的重要依據之一。或許有些可以圖找圖的軟體能作為圖形搜尋的工具,但就專利資料庫來說,確實缺少一般人可以使用的檢索工具。美國專利局檢索設計專利時,審查委員有自己以圖找圖的工具程式。

現行美國設計專利分類,分類的依據是設計專利的功能,以及工業的用途。也就是即便在不同的使用環境下,相同用途的設計就會擺在同一個類別中。

美國設計專利的主類別:
U.S. DESIGN CLASSES
D1 Edible Products
D2 Apparel and Haberdashery
D3 Travel Goods, Personal Belongings, and Storage or Carrying Articles
D4 Brushware
D5 Textile or Paper Yard Goods; Sheet Material
D6 Furnishings
D7 Equipment for Preparing or Serving Food or Drink Not Elsewhere Specified
D8 Tools and Hardware
D9 Packages and Containers for Goods
D10 Measuring, Testing or Signaling Instruments
D11 Jewelry, Symbolic Insignia, and Ornaments
D12 Transportation
D13 Equipment for Production, Distribution, or Transformation of Energy
D14 Recording, Communication, or Information Retrieval Equipment
D15 Machines Not Elsewhere Specified
D16 Photography and Optical Equipment
D17 Musical Instruments
D18 Printing and Office Machinery
D19 Office Supplies; Artists’ and Teachers’ Materials
D20 Sales and Advertising Equipment
D21 Games, Toys and Sports Goods
D22 Arms, Pyrotechnics, Hunting and Fishing Equipment
D23 Environmental Heating and Cooling, Fluid Handling and Sanitary Equipment
D24 Medical and Laboratory Equipment
D25 Building Units and Construction Elements
D26 Lighting
D27 Tobacco and Smokers’ Supplies
D28 Cosmetic Products and Toilet Articles
D29 Equipment for Safety, Protection and Rescue
D30 Animal Husbandry
D32 Washing, Cleaning or Drying Machines
D34 Material or Article Handling Equipment
D99 Miscellaneous

亦如IPC,也有次類別, 次次類別...,特別對比各主類別內的細節功能, 功能特徵, 或可區別的外觀特徵。

現行在美國設計專利中可以看到並行的「美國設計專利分類」與「國際設計分類(Locarno International Classification)」並行,因此可以在檢索的條件下更多選擇去限縮到特定範圍下。

此例為一個髮夾,其中國際分類分在28-03(可見下文介紹),美國分類為D28/40。美國設計主分類為D28(化妝品及盥洗用具),次分類為40(彈簧夾類型)。檢索美國設計專利時,可以用「APT/4 and CCL/D28/40」或「APT/4 and CCL/D28/$」。

Locarno International Classification(常見縮寫:LOC. Cl.)簡介:

Locarno International Classification是根據1968年簽署的Locarno Agreement所制定的工業設計國際分類,曾於1979年修訂,主要分類如下,國際設計專利分類通常的表示方式"xx-xx",比如主分類為28,次分類為3則顯示為「28-03」 ,根據分類定義:Class 28為「醫藥產品及化妝品盥洗用品器具」;次分類03定義為:「盥洗用品美容院的設備」,如下例一種美容用具:

列舉Locarno International Classification主分類:
      Class 1     FOODSTUFFS
      Class 2     ARTICLES OF CLOTHING AND HABERDASHERY
      Class 3     TRAVEL GOODS, CASES, PARASOLS AND PERSONAL BELONGINGS, NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED
      Class 4     BRUSHWARE
      Class 5     TEXTILE PIECEGOODS, ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL SHEET MATERIAL
      Class 6     FURNISHING
      Class 7     HOUSEHOLD GOODS, NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED
      Class 8     TOOLS AND HARDWARE
      Class 9     PACKAGES AND CONTAINERS FOR THE TRANSPORT OR HANDLING OF GOODS
      Class 10     CLOCKS AND WATCHES AND OTHER MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, CHECKING AND SIGNALLING INSTRUMENTS
      Class 11     ARTICLES OF ADORNMENT
      Class 12     MEANS OF TRANSPORT OR HOISTING
      Class 13     EQUIPMENT FOR PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION OR TRANSFORMATION OF ELECTRICITY
      Class 14     RECORDING, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT
      Class 15     MACHINES, NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED
      Class 16     PHOTOGRAPHIC, CINEMATOGRAPHIC AND OPTICAL APPARATUS
      Class 17     MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
      Class 18     PRINTING AND OFFICE MACHINERY
      Class 19     STATIONERY AND OFFICE EQUIPMENT, ARTISTS' AND TEACHING MATERIALS
      Class 20     SALES AND ADVERTISING EQUIPMENT, SIGNS
      Class 21     GAMES, TOYS, TENTS AND SPORTS GOODS
      Class 22     ARMS, PYROTECHNIC ARTICLES, ARTICLES FOR HUNTING, FISHING AND PEST KILLING
      Class 23     FLUID DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT, SANITARY, HEATING, VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT, SOLID FUEL
      Class 24     MEDICAL AND LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
      Class 25     BUILDING UNITS AND CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS
      Class 26     LIGHTING APPARATUS
      Class 27     TOBACCO AND SMOKERS' SUPPLIES
      Class 28     PHARMACEUTICAL AND COSMETIC PRODUCTS, TOILET ARTICLES AND APPARATUS
      Class 29     DEVICES AND EQUIPMENT AGAINST FIRE HAZARDS, FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION AND FOR RESCUE
      Class 30     ARTICLES FOR THE CARE AND HANDLING OF ANIMALS
      Class 31     MACHINES AND APPLIANCES FOR PREPARING FOOD OR DRINK, NOT ELSEWHERE SPECIFIED
      Class 32     GRAPHIC SYMBOLS AND LOGOS, SURFACE PATTERNS, ORNAMENTATION


順便找一下中華民國的設計專利,其中也是採用LOC. Cl.,若以11-01分類為例,Class 11為「裝飾物」;次分類01定義為:「首飾」,如下例一種美容用具:

Ron
資料參考:WIPO, USPTO

2 則留言:

HOMER CONCEPT 人家概念 提到...

您好,請問「美國的設計專利就分兩種:an ornamental design, an article of manufacture。」是甚麼意思?MPEP裡何處有提及?謝謝。

EN & Jane's murmur 提到...

感謝您的回應,我現在才又看到您的訊息。我的回應已經更新在同篇內容中,感謝,應該更正是:ornamental design of an article of manufacture

thanks
Ron